Appendix A Definitions of Abuse
Appendix B Observations Form
Appendix C Body Maps
Appendix D Managers’ Action Plan
Appendix E Form A – Notification of Child Death
Appendix F Form CR8 and CR10
Nishkam Nursery aims to ensure the safeguarding and protection of all children with whom it comes into contact, including those with special educational needs and/or disabilities. Practitioners and volunteers recruited by the Nishkam Nursery will be responsible for ensuring the safety and welfare of all children in their care and under their supervision. “Everyone who works with children – including teachers, GPs, nurses, midwives, health visitors, early years professionals, youth workers, police, Accident and Emergency staff, paediatricians, voluntary and community workers and social workers – has a responsibility for keeping them safe” (Working Together to Safeguard Children 2015).
Harm to children can be perpetrated in various ways, e.g. physically, emotionally, sexual and through domestic violence. These can be recognised in different ways (definitions are provided in Appendix A).
Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children can be defined as:
Child protection is a part of safeguarding and promoting welfare. It refers to the activity that is undertaken to protect specific children who are suffering, or are likely to suffer, significant harm.
‘Working Together to Safeguard Children 2015’ sets out how Nishkam Nursery and individuals should work together to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and how practitioners should conduct the assessment of children.
Nishkam Nursery has a duty under section 40 of the Childcare Act 2006 to comply with the welfare requirements of the Early Years Foundation Stage to ensure that:
Multi-agency working brings together practitioners from different sectors and professions to provide an integrated way of working to support children, young people and families. It is a way of working that ensures children and young people who need additional support have exactly the right professionals needed to support them.
Birmingham Children and Young People’s Plan 2012-2015 has a strong focus on protecting children from significant harm, improving engagement in learning and achievement in education, and reducing health inequalities. Adhering to the policies and requirements of Birmingham’s Safeguarding Board, the Childcare Act 2006 and the Early Years Foundation Stage 2017, Nishkam Nursery will work towards Birmingham’s vision and key priorities: Prevention, Integration, Aspiration, Safeguarding, Participation and Excellence for the well-being of all children in our care.
2 Role of the Designated Safeguarding Lead (DSL)
The role of the DSL is to take lead responsibility for safeguarding children, managing child protection issues, policy, procedures and professional development training for staff. This involves providing advice and support to other staff, making referrals to and liaising with the local authority, and working with other agencies.
Information relating to individual child protection cases is confidential, although some information can be shared with relevant staff where necessary. This will be done on a need to know‟ basis. Further guidance can be found in “Working Together to Safeguard Children”.
At Nishkam Nursery, Kulwant Singh is the DSL with overall responsibility for standards of Safeguarding and Child Protection practice. In his absence, the DSL will be either Japjit Kaur Pnaiser or Charanjit Kaur (whoever is available). The Nursery Governor, Parvinder Singh, is also DSL trained. All child protection concerns will be brought to the attention of the Designated Safeguarding Lead who will ensure that this policy is followed. One of the DSL will be available at all times in nursery for staff to discuss any concerns.
3 What to do if you feel a child has suffered significant harm, has made a disclosure or you have witnessed a concern
Nishkam Nursery will attend child protection conferences and other meetings such as ‘Team Around the Family’ (TAF) meetings when and where appropriate.
4 Concerns around a person in a Position of Trust – what to do if you have a concern about a member of staff/volunteer/student doing or being involved in something that could cause a question as to their suitability of working with children
A person in a Position of Trust refers to anyone who carries out work, paid or unpaid, who has access to children and/or to privileged information about children as part of their work.
The guidance in this section is relevant to any situation in which the behaviour of a person in a Position of Trust raises a query as to their suitability to work with children (whether that behaviour occurs at work or outside it).
The following actions set out must be completed within one working day.
When a member of staff has concerns about a person in a Position of Trust, they should:
5 Information sharing
Nishkam Nursery has a responsibility under “Working Together, Government Guidance on Interagency Child Protection Work” to work with other agencies and professionals to safeguard children.
We are also guided by “What to do if you are worried a Child is being abused” (Department of Health 2005) and Birmingham’s local safeguarding board. The sort of information we share will include.
Effective sharing of information between staff and local agencies is essential for effective identification, assessment and service provision. Early sharing of information is the key to providing effective early help where there are emerging problems.
To ensure effective safeguarding arrangements:
Information Sharing: Guidance for practitioners and managers (2008) supports frontline practitioners, working in child or adult services, who have to make decisions about sharing personal information on a case by case basis. The guidance will be used to supplement local guidance and encourage good practice in information sharing.
Recruitment and selection procedures for staff and volunteers will ensure that all appropriate application and appointment procedures are carried out; this includes seeking satisfactory references and a clear enhanced disclosure from the Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) (It is a criminal offence for individuals barred by the DBS to work or apply to work with children). Govenors of the nursery are also required to obtain a clear enhanced disclosure from the Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS).
New staff and volunteers or trainees will complete induction programmes that ensure they read the Policy for Safeguarding and Protecting Children and undertake child protection training.
For detailed information please see Nishkam Nursery ‘Recruitment, Selection and Disclosure Policy’.
The safety and wellbeing of children is the paramount principle which guides supervision and management of staff.
Staff will receive regular supervision from the SMT which will cover issues such as concerns about a child’s welfare, what kind of intervention is being used to safeguard the child, how staff are working together with agencies such as Social Care on stated plans of intervention etc. Staff will receive guidance from their managers about responding to concerns, and the extent of their role and responsibility. Concerns about children should be discussed between planned supervision sessions as necessary. Whilst the welfare of the child is paramount, confidentiality should be maintained
Supervision sessions will be recorded by the SMT for future reference. Discussions about concerns which occur outside supervision sessions will also be recorded by the SMT and Staff member.
Staff should talk to the SMT if they have any concerns about their own or their colleagues’ levels of knowledge or quality of practice in relation to children and families they are working with.
Staff should also raise any concerns they have for staff safety with the SMT.
If there is concern about a staff member’s ability to work with children and families where there are child protection concerns, this should be addressed in a timely and supportive way by the SMT. This may include provision of additional supervision, training, change of duties or other appropriate measures.
8 Staff Training
All members of staff and volunteers should have a level of awareness of child protection issues appropriate to their role.
The Nishkam Nursery management team will ensure that all members of staff attend Safeguarding and Child Protection training.
The Nishkam SMT and Deputy Manager will also undergo the 2 day Designated Senior Persons Safeguarding training.
All staff and managers will receive regular updates on safeguarding at least annually. All DSL’s and members of staff will be required to attend refresher training every 2 years.
Our staff will record observations on children’s personal files and make clear what further work is planned with a family and why. This will help us to focus our work appropriately, provide a documented account of activity, enhance inter-agency working and help SMT to monitor and support practice.
Staff working with children within the setting should record their concerns in writing using the observations form (Appendix B) and/or body maps (Appendix C) on the same day and discuss them with the SMT. Records will include what is said, seen or heard and any Action Plans. Forms CR8 and CR10 will be used to record all communication and contact with the family and records of all events (Appendix F). All records will be kept in the child’s personal file and in the concerns file.
The SMT is to complete a Manager s’ Action Plan (Appendix D) and maintain a Concern’s file.
All records will be dated and signed in full by the person making the record. The record will then be read and signed by the SMT (Designated Safeguarding Lead).
In the event of a child death the DSL is to inform OFSTED and Children’s Services. A telephone referral must be made initially, and be followed up in writing on the form which can be faxed and posted.
In the event of a child death whilst in our care, we will take advise from Children’s Advice and Support Service (CASS) on 0121 303 1888 and take advice (emergency duty team for out of hours 0121 675 4806), report to the Birmingham Safeguarding Children’s Board and Ofsted.
To report to the BSCB we will complete Form A (Appendix E) and send it to the Child Death Overview Co-ordinator, Birmingham Safeguarding Children Board 0121 464 2612.
To report to Ofsted, please follow instructions as outlined in the factsheet ‘Serious accidents, injuries and deaths that registered providers must notify to Ofsted and local child protection agencies’, which can be found on the OFSTED website.
11 Whistle Blowing
If a member of staff or volunteer has concerns about the conduct of a colleague or that a colleague has
they will in the first instance discuss their concerns with the DSL who is the SMT who will contact the Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO) on 0121 675 1669 (emergency duty team for out of hours 0121 675 4806) to take advice and follow guidance and inform OFSTED. Where the member of staff has concerns about the conduct of the SMT in relation to the above they will directly contact LADO to take advice and follow guidance and inform OFSTED. Parvinder Singh from the governing body will also be contacted on 07956 464034.
12 Prevent Duty, Radicalisation and Extremism
The Government have reinforced the need “to create and enforce a clear and rigorous expectation on all schools and childcare providers to promote the fundamental British values of democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance of those with different faiths and beliefs.”
Radicalisation is defined as the act or process of making a person more radical or favouring of extreme or fundamental changes in political, economic or social conditions, institutions or habits of the mind.
Extremism is defined as the holding of extreme political or religious views.
The Nishkam Nursery has a zero-tolerance approach to extremist behaviour. We rely on our strong values to steer our work and ensure the pastoral care of our children protects them from exposure to negative influences.
Nishkam Nursery is fully committed to safeguarding and promoting the welfare of all its children. As a nursery, we recognise that safeguarding against radicalisation is no different from safeguarding against any other vulnerability. At Nishkam Nursery all staff are expected to uphold and promote the fundamental principles of British values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect, and tolerance of those with different faiths and beliefs. Where we feel concerned about the welfare of a child, we will follow our Safeguarding Policy and Procedures.
Children’s Advice and Support Service (CASS)
Birmingham Safeguarding Children Board (BSCB): 0121 464 2612
Early Years: 0121 464 4436
Interagency referral Form: www.Iscbbirmingham.org.uk
NSPCC: 0808 800 5000
Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS)
Telephone: 0870 909 0811
Other relevant policies at Nishkam Nursery:
This policy will be displayed in the front foyer in the policy folder.
Child Protection Teams outside of Birmingham
Sandwell: 0845 3510131
Out of hours: 0845 3510131
Solihull: 0121 788 4333
Out of hours: 0121 605 6060
Walsall: 01922 658170
Out of hours: 0845 1112922
Abuse may be described as:
“An act, or failure to act, by the person responsible for the care of the child. If may involve cruelty, exploitation or neglect.”
DEFINITIONS OF ABUSE
Physical abuse may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating or otherwise causing physical harm to a child. Physical harm may also be caused when a partner or carer feigns the symptoms of, or deliberately causes ill-health to a child whom they are looking after. This situation is commonly described using terms such as ‘factitious illness by proxy’ or ‘Munchausen syndrome by proxy’.
Physical abuse can lead directly to neurological damage, physical injuries, disability, or at the extreme, death. Harm may be caused to children both by the abuse itself and by the abuse taking place in a wider family or institutional context of conflict and aggression. Physical abuse has been linked to aggressive behaviour in children, emotional and behavioural problems, and emotional difficulties.
Signs and indicators of Possible Physical abuse.
In a child under one:
In addition to the above, be alert to changes in behaviour for children aged one to eight:
Physical abuse may be the result of sudden, uncontrolled or pre-meditated assault of exposure to physical harm and may include:
In general terms, accidental bruising is usually on the front of the body as children generally tend to fall forwards.
The following situations should cause concern and precipitate action being taken:
Emotional abuse is the persistent ill treatment of a child which may cause severe and persistent adverse effects on the child’s emotional development. It may involve conveying to children that they are worthless and unloved, inadequate, or valued only insofar as they meet the needs of another person. It may involve causing children frequently to feel frightened or in danger, or the exploitation or corruption of children. Some level of emotional abuse is involved in all types of ill-treatment of a child, though it may occur alone.
Emotional abuse can often be difficult to measure, and often children who appear physically well cared for may be emotionally abused by being taunted and belittled or by receiving little or no love, affection, or attention. Domestic violence, adult mental health problems, and parental substance misuse may be features in families where children are exposed to such abuse. Emotional abuse has an important impact on a developing child’s mental health, behaviour, and self-esteem.
Signs and indicators of Possible Emotional Abuse.
Under one year old:
One to five years:
Neglect is the persistent failure to meet a child’s basic physical and/or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the child’s health or development. It may involve a parent or carer failing to provide adequate food, shelter and clothing, failing to protect a child from physical harm or danger, or the failure to ensure access to appropriate medical care or treatment. It may also include neglect of, or unresponsiveness to, a child’s basic emotional needs.
Neglect is a difficult form of abuse to recognise but can have some of the most lasting and damaging effects on children. It can also result in death in extreme cases. The key features of serious neglect are persistent, accumulative and occur over a period of time with little change.
In a child under one:
One to eight years (as above and 🙂
THE LISTS OF POSSIBLE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS ARE EXHAUSTIVE – ALWAYS CONSIDER THE BIGGER PICTURE AND FOLLOW THE CHILD PROTECTION PROCEDURE AT ALL TIMES
Sexual abuse involves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening. The activities may involve physical contact, including penetrative (e.g. rape and buggery) or non-penetrative acts. They may include non-contact activities, such as involving children in looking at or in the production of pornographic material or watching sexual activities, or encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways.
Sexual abuse is the involvement of developmentally immature children with adults in sexual activities they do not truly comprehend, to which they are unable to give informed consent, or which are illegal, or which violate the social taboos of family life. The severity of impact on a child is believed to increase the longer the abuse continues, the more extensive the abuse and the older the child. The abuse is often kept secret by a variety of methods and may carry on for considerable periods of time before it is brought to anyone’s attention.
Signs and indicators of possible sexual abuse
In a child under one:
In a child aged one to five:
Those indicators marked with * should be taken as very serious indicators.
Staff understand that it is not our job to investigate an allegation. We take record of what is said or seen and follow the procedure of referral. (see flowchart – Appendix B).
It is impossible to prevent children witnessing domestic violence. They may see or hear the abusive episode, be used or even involved in the violence (e.g. the child may be in his mother’s arms when she is hit), will experience the aftermath, and sense the tension in the build-up to the abuse. Even when the parents believe the children were unaware of what was happening, the children can often give detailed accounts of the events.
Children are affected not only by directly witnessing abuse, but also by living in an environment where usually the main caregiver – is being repeatedly victimised.
Signs and Indicators of possible domestic abuse
Child sexual exploitation (CSE) is a type of sexual abuse. Children in exploitative situations and relationships receive something such as gifts, money or affection as a result of performing sexual activities or others performing sexual activities on them.
Children or young people may be tricked into believing they’re in a loving, consensual relationship. They might be invited to parties and given drugs and alcohol. They may also be groomed online.
Some children and young people are trafficked into or within the UK for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Sexual exploitation can also happen to young people in gangs.
Child sexual exploitation is a hidden crime. Young people often trust their abuser and don’t understand that they’re being abused. They may depend on their abuser or be too scared to tell anyone what’s happening.
It can involve violent, humiliating and degrading sexual assaults, including oral and anal rape. In some cases, young people are persuaded or forced into exchanging sexual activity for money, drugs, gifts, affection or status. Child sexual exploitation doesn’t always involve physical contact and can happen online.
Signs and Indicators of possible Child Sexual Exploitation
Female genital mutilation (FGM) also known as female circumcision or cutting, is a collective term for procedures which include the partial or total removal of the external female genital organs, or injury to the female genital organs, for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons.
FGM is medically unnecessary, is extremely painful, and has serious health consequences, both at the time of the procedure, and in later life. It can also be psychologically damaging.
A number of girls die as a direct result of the procedure, from blood loss or infection. In the longer term, women who have undergone some form of FGM are twice as likely to die in childbirth, and four times more likely to give birth to a still born child.
The Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003 makes it
An offence under this act has a maximum penalty of up to 14 years in prison and/or a fine.
Female genital mutilation is physical abuse, and whilst it is perceived by parents not to be an act of hate, it is harmful, it is child abuse and it is unlawful. It has long lasting significant implications for those who have the procedure performed on them.
Signs and Indicators of possible FGM abuse